2.7.59.9, 2018-10-09 10:11:18

The e-glossary.

E-vārdnīca.

Kas ir ar akumulatoru aprīkots elektromobilis, rekuperācija un ietekme no ieguves līdz patēriņam? Šeit ir izskaidroti svarīgākie elektromobilitātes jēdzieni.

A

BEV
Battery Electric Vehicle, a vehicle that solely drives with battery power.

BlueMotion
Product label that is given to the most economic model of a Volkswagen product line.

Ā

Car-to-Car communication
Direct data and information exchange between motor vehicles, which will help to improve safety on the road and increase traffic flow in future.

Car-to-X communication
Communication by vehicles with their surroundings, which will help to prevent accidents and traffic jams in future.

CO2
Carbon dioxide, a colourless and odourless gas, produced during combustion processes. CO2 is considered to be the main cause of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In 2007 alone, the CO2 percentage of greenhouse gas emissions was 88 percent.

Combustion engine
A drive machine which generates its power by converting the chemical energy contained in the fuel into heat and then utilising this heat in mechanical work. The conversion into heat takes place by combustion of fuels which generally consist of hydrocarbons.

Cycle life
Number of charging and discharging cycles a battery can undergo before its capacity falls below a certain percentage of its initial capacity. Volkswagen relies on lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, which do not have a memory effect, are not damaged by daily charging and only marginally discharge themselves. High-quality components guarantee that the batteries remain fully operational throughout the entire life cycle of the vehicle. Volkswagen therefore offers an eight-year warranty on its high-voltage batteries. They can be charged several thousand times during this time.

B

DSG dual clutch gearbox
Automated manual gearbox, which enables fully automatic gear changes to be made without noticeable interruption to driving power, thanks to two gear train halves.

Downsizing
Reducing the volume of the engine at the same time as increasing its specific performance or torque density, possibly by forced induction. Downsizing helps to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions.o

C

Electric vehicles
Cars driven by electricity rather than by fuel. More precisely, the term is a catch-all term both for battery vehicles as well as “fuel cell vehicles”, depending on the respective energy store. Generally speaking, “electric vehicle” is almost always used to describe battery vehicles (BEVs), driven solely by electricity.

Emission
Issue of substances or forms of energy into the environment. The main emissions from road traffic are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC) and CO2. Diesel engines also emit particulates (soot, dust). Modern filtration systems reduce them to a minimum.

Energy recovery
Recovery of the kinetic energy released during braking or coasting. In electric vehicles, this generally occurs by switching the drive motor to generator mode and the electricity produced being fed into the vehicle’s battery, in which it is stored for future use. For physical reasons, only some of the braking energy can be recovered.

D

Fuel cell vehicle
A vehicle with an electric drive, in which the required electrical energy is generated by a fuel cell from hydrogen as an energy carrier. Only water vapour is produced locally as an emission. For Volkswagen, the fuel cell therefore represents one of the possible drive concepts of the future.

Full hybrids
Full hybrids are characterised by the fact that they can be moved by either of their two drives. The combustion engine and electric motor can generally also be used jointly for propulsion.

E

Green electricity
Eco-electricity, or green electricity, is electricity generated from renewable energy sources or from environmentally-friendly cogeneration; physically it does not differ from grey electricity.

H

Hybrid vehicles (HEV)
Hybrid Electric Vehicles are vehicles that combine at least two drive concepts – a combustion engine-based and electric motor-based drive. The term hybrid is ambiguous as hybrid vehicles are classified according to the level of electrification (Micro, Mild, Full and Plug-in hybrids). In general usage, the term hybrid vehicle is usually used to describe a full hybrid.

Hydrogen
» Fuel cell vehicle

I

Intermodal transport concepts
Cross-transport mobility and traffic concepts that permit the problem-free switch between aircraft, bus and rail, electric vehicles, car sharing services and bicycles.

K

Lightweight construction
Construction technique with the aim of maximum weight saving. Apart from the drive system, lightweight construction is the most effective option for saving fuel and reducing emissions.

Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries
Rechargeable battery with a very high energy density, thermally stable and virtually no memory effect. Volkswagen relies on this technology in view of its positive properties.

L

Memory effect
Capacity loss with certain types of rechargeable battery, which are not fully discharged before being recharged. It is assumed that the battery “notices” the energy demand and, over time, only provides the volume of energy needed with previous discharge processes instead of the original volume of charge

Micro hybrids (TDI BlueMotion)
In the truest sense not really hybrid vehicles, rather the enhancement of the combustion engine. Micro hybrids save fuel by means of a start/stop system or recover the energy produced during braking (energy recovery) and feed it into the car’s battery to relieve the alternator. However, owing to this partial electrification, with further definition they can be included as hybrid vehicles. A micro hybrid does not have an electric motor.

Mild hybrids
Vehicles whose electrical component only makes up a small proportion of the drive concept. However, they have greater electrification than a micro hybrid, as they have their own rechargeable battery and electric motor. All the same, purely electric motion is not yet possible with a mild hybrid, unlike with a full hybrid, with the combustion engine merely being supported. Volkswagen will therefore rely on the technology of a full hybrid.

MQB
The modular transverse matrix represents the Volkswagen product development and production concept for transverse engines and gearboxes. With this type of design, the engine crankshaft is perpendicular to the direction of travel and thus parallel to the shafts. The majority of vehicles with front-wheel drive are constructed in this way today. In production, the models are assembled from a series of modules, combined differently depending on the model. This modular principle leads to a great deal of scope in the design of vehicles, for instance, by variable wheelbases and track widths. The newly developed engine ranges are being systematically optimised to reduce CO2 emissions. Modular components enable even greater comfort and improved safety to be achieved, whilst maintaining the same weight, by means of the intelligent material mix of newly developed high-strength steels and state-of-the-art construction principles. The MQB also allows for around 20 innovations in the areas of safety, driver assistance and infotainment for all models, hitherto reserved for higher-end vehicle segments. This represents high cost-savings in development and purchasing owing to the many synergy effects.

M

Powertrain electrification
Successive entry into the use of electric motors as the alternative drive source of the future. Beginning by optimising conventional combustion engines using energy recovery (micro-hybrids), the development spans various hybrid systems (full hybrids, plug-in hybrids) with BEVs as the ultimate objective.

Peak oil
The point at which maximum global oil extraction has been reached and after which production declines year on year. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that this point will be reached in 2020. The scarcer oil becomes, the more expensive petrol and diesel fuel will be. This is yet another reason why alternative drive technologies are needed.

Plug-in hybrids (twinDrive BlueMotion)
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is a vehicle that combines a combustion engine and electric motor. The rechargeable battery can be charged from a power socket (unlike the » full hybrid, the battery of which can only be recharged by energy recovery) Plug-in hybrids can drive for considerably longer in purely electric mode. Plug-in hybrids can drive for around 50 kilometres purely electrically, with the combustion engine switching in with longer distances. They are ideal for people who drive around town and also take longer trips.

Post-lithium-ion batteries
The successor technologies to today’s lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. They are often open systems, for instance zinc-air rechargeable batteries, with significantly higher energy density (> 500 kWh), which will one day also enable long-distance electric mobility.

N

Quick-charging with CCS
Unlike standard charging with alternating current (basic cable or wall box), quick-charging with direct current at specially designed CCS charging stations is possible within 20 to 30 minutes, currently restoring around 80 percent of capacity. The “Combined Charging System” (CCS) is acknowledged as an international standard. Viewed in the long term, the wireless charging of electric vehicles by induction also presents an option.

O

Smart Grid
“Intelligent” power network, which uses modern information and communication technology, for instance to integrate decentrally generated energy to optimise load management or for energy management by the customer. The aim is to ensure the energy supply based on the efficient and reliable operation of the system.

Start/stop system
A system that reduces the fuel consumption of cars. The combustion engine is stopped by the brake load of the generator and the supply of fuel being switched off when the car is coasting or standstill in a traffic jam. It starts up fully automatically when the driver presses the accelerator pedal or lifts his foot off the brake. There are potential fuel savings particularly in urban traffic where there are many phases when the vehicle is typically at a standstill.

P

Tank-to-wheel
» Well-to-wheel

TDI
TDI is the designation given by Volkswagen to diesel vehicles with direct injection and a turbocharger. The key characteristics of TDI engines are their economy, low emissions, high power output (torque) and very good power efficiency. In many countries, TDI is a registered trademark of Volkswagen AG.

TSI
The name given to a type of engine, which encompasses all single and double charged, direct injection petrol motors in Volkswagen vehicles. The concept includes different charging versions and capacities, as well as different numbers of cylinders and their arrangement. With its TSI technology, Volkswagen has succeeded in creating engines that offer benefits from lower fuel consumption, at the same time winning over customers with their superior power discharge.

R

Vehicle-to-grid
Concepts that use the batteries of electric vehicles as mains power buffers. When required, energy is fed from the fleet of electric vehicles back into the power grid. This can be useful for the purpose of effective load and storage management, for instance to compensate for fluctuations with renewable energy sources. Today’s rechargeable batteries are not yet fully designed to cope with this concept. The electric vehicle would also need an expensive bidirectional charging unit to be able to feed back electricity. The conversion losses encountered when transforming alternating current (battery) into direct current (power grid) would also have to be minimised. A ‘light version’ is therefore initially conceivable, which would work without feedback yet provide major benefits for the environment.

S

Well-to-tank
» Well-to-wheel

Well-to-wheel
Total energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of a fuel, caused by production, provision and use. With crude oil, this starts at the drill hole, via the refinery, the network of filling stations and vehicle tank to the final provision of energy in the vehicle. This view is sub-divided into two steps: the well-to-tank path describes the provision of fuel, while the tank-to-wheel path describes the use of the fuel in the vehicle and the emissions generated during vehicle operation.

T

Zero-emission vehicle
The ZEV, zero-emission vehicle, is a vehicle that does not emit harmful exhaust gases when driven and complies with so-called zero emission limits. However, to be considered as a zero-emission vehicle in the overall energy balance, the electric energy used to drive the vehicle must come from renewable sources.

U

Zero-emission vehicle
The ZEV, zero-emission vehicle, is a vehicle that does not emit harmful exhaust gases when driven and complies with so-called zero emission limits. However, to be considered as a zero-emission vehicle in the overall energy balance, the electric energy used to drive the vehicle must come from renewable sources.

V

Zero-emission vehicle
The ZEV, zero-emission vehicle, is a vehicle that does not emit harmful exhaust gases when driven and complies with so-called zero emission limits. However, to be considered as a zero-emission vehicle in the overall energy balance, the electric energy used to drive the vehicle must come from renewable sources.

Z

Zero-emission vehicle
The ZEV, zero-emission vehicle, is a vehicle that does not emit harmful exhaust gases when driven and complies with so-called zero emission limits. However, to be considered as a zero-emission vehicle in the overall energy balance, the electric energy used to drive the vehicle must come from renewable sources.